wp-config.php is one of the core WordPress files. It contains information about the database, including the name, host (typically localhost), username, and password. This information allows WordPress to communicate with the database to store and retrieve data (e.g. Posts, Users, Settings, etc). The file is also used to define advanced options for WordPress.
The file wp-config.php does not come in the default download package of WordPress. Instead, it contains a file called wp-config-sample.php which can be renamed and used as wp-config.php to install and use WordPress.
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